DS21 Cultivating the Wild DS21 is concerned with people, places and politics. Faced with today’s global environmental crisis the response of architects ranges between eco-abstinence, technological salvation and outright denial. We believe a more optimistic, progressive approach is to be found through a meaningful interrogation of the Wild – as a place, an ecology and a character - to understand how buildings may better co-exist with the natural world. We began by collecting texts, images and objects that defined Wild-ness, allowing individual definitions to evolve. These were developed through large expressive drawings of wild landscapes and wild objects that explored the quality, evolution and manipulation of found materials. The context for our investigations was the Yorkshire Dales National Park, a man-made, state-sanctioned wilderness suffering from flooding, unemployment and a declining economy. In response to a recent government report calling for a ‘transformational catalyst project’, students collectively developed visions, briefs and spatial constitutions for new universities in the Dales. Channelling the utopian radicalism of the ‘plateglass’ universities founded in the 1960s, we conducted a drawn survey of the physical and social forms of relevant universities around the globe, supported by trips to Cambridge and Yorkshire. We studied the relationship between landscape and learning, considering how form, material and myth define the particular qualities of an inhabited landscape.

The Yorkshire Dales National Park was established in 1954 W E S T M O R L A N D D A L E S Sedburgh Dent Ribblehead WHERNSIDE INGLEBOROUGH PEN-Y-GHENT Settle Malham Grassington Kettlewell Buckden Aysgarth Bainbridge Hawes Bolton Abbey Ravenstonedale Keld Gunnerside Reeth Kirkby Stephen About the Yorkshire Dales National Park... It was extended westward in 2016 by 24% today most of the park is in North Yorkshire with a sizeable area in Cumbria and a small part in Lancashire The National Park has a housing stock of 11,254 buildings, of which just over 21% are second or holiday homes The Yorkshire Dales is renowned for its geology, also known as Limestone Country, its limestone pavements formed over 350 million years ago by ancient glaciers The National Park has three peaks Whernside, Ingleborough & Pen-y-ghent with a 40km walking route between them There are 8,050kms of dry-stone walls with some dating back over 600 years to when they were built to repel wolves. In 2020 there were over 4 million day visitors to the National Park (Yorkshire Dales Visitor Survey 2020) 23,637 people live in the Yorkshire Dales National Park. 2,628kms of footpaths 618kms of bridleways 1,090 farms in the National Park buildings terrain roads water railway line The national park covers 2,179km2 97% of the land in the National Park is privately owned S WA L E DAL E WE NS L E Y D A L E WHAR F E D A L E R I B B L E S D AL E AR KE NGA R T HDAL E GA R SD AL E D E NT D AL E BI S HO P D AL E L I T T ONDAL E MA L HA MD AL E KI NGS DAL E BARBONDA L E COV E R DAL E R AY DAL E MAL L E R S T ANG COASTTOCOAST DAL ES WAY PENNI NE WAY R AI LWAY About the Yorkshire Dales National Park...

History & Management

Defining the Wild wild, adj. and n. Oxford definition 1. Living in a state of nature, and related uses. 1. Of an animal: living in a state of nature; not tame, not domesticated: opposed to tame. 2. Of a plant (or flower): growing in a state of nature; not cultivated. 3. Produced or yielded by wild animals or plants; produced naturally without cultivation; sometimes, having the characteristic (usually inferior) quality of such productions. 4. Of a place or region: uncultivated or uninhabitated; hence, waste, desert, desolate. 5. Of persons (or their attributes): uncivilized, savage, uncultured, rude; also, not accepting, or resisting, the constituted government; rebellious. 6. Not under, or submitting to, control or restraint; taking, or disposed to take, one’s own way; uncontrolled. 7. Not submitting to moral control; taking one’s own way in defiance of moral obligation or authority; unruly, insubordinate; wayward, self-willed. 8. Fierce, savage, ferocious; furious, violent, destructive, cruel.

primal... destruction/ rebirth... savage... The wild is...

chaotic and ordered... force... disarranged... dualism... Indy

Vision for Learning A client, vision and spatial constitution In response to a recent government report calling for a ‘transformational catalyst project’, students developed visions, briefs and spatial constitutions for new universities in the Dales. Channelling the utopian radicalism of the ‘plateglass’ universities founded in the 1960s, we conducted a drawn survey of the physical and social forms of relevant universities around the globe. We studied the relationship between landscape and learning, considering how form, material and myth define the particular qualities of an inhabited landscape. Black Mountain College, North Carolina Buckminster Fuller presents ‘Celebration of the Creative Process: A Meeting of Art and Science’ in 1980 at the Quarry Amphitheatre, University of California at Santa Cruz, opened in 1967 in the former Cowell Ranch Lime Works

50,000 Size Number of Subjects $7300 7500 km Tuition Fees Distance to YDNP 331 2281 692 Number of Students Number of Staff Evergreen State College Olympia, USA 1967 0 50 100m 20 Designed by various architects, Brutalism is the style of architecture used for most buildings on campus. Architect and Style Thecollegeoffersanon-traditional undergraduate curriculum in which students have the option to design their own study towards a degree or follow a pre-determined path of study. Pedagogy and Politics The Evergreen State College is a public liberal arts and sciences college inOlympia,Washington. The campus spans 1,000 acres of forest close to the southern end of the Puget Sound. Evergreen was one of many alternative colleges and programs launched in the 1960s and 1970s, often described as experiments. While the vast majority of these have either closed or adopted more mainstream approaches, Evergreen is one of a few in remaining steadfast in pursuing its original mission. 400 Number of Staff 45,400 Size Number of Subjects 30 12,500 Tuition Fees Distance to YDNP 1000 3800 Number of Students Väre Building, Aalto University Espoo, Finland 2019 0 100 200 The university offers mostly postgraduate and research degrees, with a number of cross-disciplinary options and University-Wide Art Studies courses and the Design Inside Initative to “renew society through creative cross-disciplinary design.” The university as a whole strives for a more radical multidisciplinary approach to learning and research, with a number of internal programs in place to facilitate this. Pedagogy & Politics This new building houses Aalto University’s world-ranking schools of Arts, Architecture & Design, and Business & Economics. It is designed to encourage creativity and collaboration through casual encounters between students and staff, thereby fostering future talent and new startups. Multi-functional learning spaces are arranged in clusters around tall atriums, with workshops at ground level and focused study spaces on the upper floors. The building is primarily red brick construction to complement the existing campus designed by Alvar Aalto. Its form comprises of staggered modules with angular connections. 2 000 Size Number of Subjects 3980 12000 Tuition Fees Distance to YDNP 1 200 67 Number of Students Number of Staff University of Bío-Bío INES Innovation Concepcion, Chile 2021 0 20 50 100m Pezo von Ellrichshausen. The building is inspired by Japanese architecture, and with its simple and geometric external form it follows the ideas of minimalist architecture, with an idea of spatial complexity for the interiors. Architect and Style The open-plan interior encourages collaboration betweenstudents andstaff. However, theconcrete structure also contains private spaces suitable for individual work or more focused study. Pedagogy and Politics The building is a form full of geometric shapes. Circles and circle segments characterize the individual storeys. At the centre of the building, round cut-outs in the intermediate ceilings form an atrium. The holes diminish in size with each ascending level; theyare toppedoffwithaskylight. Airy openings are also located in the jutting parts of the floor slabs. The cut-outs provide fascinating angles of view through the entire building. The building symbolises the world of innovation; a continuous, fluid, and open space that conceptual and physically translates the creative processes of academic practice, that sequential development of formal research or the reversible and multiple dimension associated with informal knowledge. 100 Number of Student 9 Number of Subjects Tuition Fees Size 38,237 5,292 Distance to YDNP 25,220 262 Number of Staff Salk Institute California, USA. 1965 0 100 200 VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION TheSalk Institute is abiological researchcentre that was commissioned by Jonas Salk, the creator of the polio vaccine. Located on a South Californian hilltop overlooking the pacific coast, it’s aim was to be inspiring, and was designed to work as a secluded intellectual community. Internally, openplan laboratories were created to encourage spontaneous collaboration. Louis Kahn, Modernist. Mainly a research centre, the Salk Institute only offers graduate courses, with students coming from the University of California, San Diego. The students study within the Salk laboratory spaces. Architect and Style Pedagogy and Politics 2630 Size Number of Subjects 556 1102 Tuition Fees Distance to YDNP 14 129 12 Number of Students Number of Staff Bauhaus Dessau, Germany 1826 0 100 200 Walter Gropius, International Style Architect and Style The curriculum commenced with a preliminary course that immersed the students in Bauhaus theory, followed by specialized craft workshops; after select students were admitted to the study of the building. Pedagogy and Politics The Bauhaus was founded in 1919 in the city of Weimar by German architect Walter Gropius (1883–1969). Its core objective was a radical concept: to reimagine the material world to reflect the unity of all the arts. The Bauhaus combined elements of both fine arts and design education. The school existed in three German cities—Weimar (1919-1925), Dessau (19251932), and Berlin (1932-1933)—under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius (1919-1928), Hannes Meyer (1928-1930), and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1930-1933). The school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime, having been painted as a centre of communist intellectualism. 1860 sq. m Size Number of Subjects 10340 8730 km Tuition Fees Distance to YDNP 5 1352 13 Number of Students Number of Staff Kresge College Santa Cruz, California 1971 0 100 200 vv William Turnbull & Charles Moore Post-Modern/Idiosyncratic Architecture Architect and Style Kresge College is a participatory democracy, where students and staff had equal voice. Its architectural ideology focuses on the sense of community, encouraging informal interaction between students and staffs along walkways. Pedagogy and Politics Kresge College established in 1971 with a vision of breaking away from the formal college structure. Focusing on informal interactions, walkways are wooven between the redwood forest with 2-storey buildings along the path, resembling an ‘Italian hill village’ 1693 Size (m2) Number of Subjects 0 7990 Tuition Fees Distance to YDNP (km) 9 26 12 Number of Students Number of Staff Deep Springs College California, USA 1917 0 100 200 Vernacular architecture Architect and Style Pedagogy and Politics Three pillars: Academic, labour and selfgovernance. The students hold decision-making authority and each are part of a committee. “The desert has a deep personality; it has a voice.” Deep Springs College is a small college with fewer than 30 students at a time, the college is one of the smallest institutions of higher education in the United States. It is 45 miles from the nearest town of significance (Bishop, California). The extreme isolation requires self-sufficiency and plays an central role in the experience, where the desert is believed to hold spiritual qualities and lacks distractions of the real world. Each students works a 20 hour week in place of a tuition fee which is considered essential to the educational experience. 8,500 Size Number of Subjects 4,420 13,600 Tuition Fees Distance to YDNP 4 900 150 Number of Students Number of Staff National University of Singapore School of Design & EnvironSingapore 2019 0 50 100m 20 ment 4 Multiply Architects, Serie Architects and Surbana Jurong worked together to create an energy efficient solution within the challenging tropical climates of Singapore. Architect and Style The SDE4 was developed with the aim of becoming a prototype of sustainable design and reflecting the school’s remit to promote sustainability and education in southeast Asia. Pedagogy and Politics The SDE4 is the first net-zero energy building of its kind in Singapore. Located near the southern coastline of Singapore, the six-storey climate-responsive building’s flexible design and high efficiency reflect the School’s ambitions of promoting new forms of teaching spaces as a scaffold for research. Most of the rooms are designed in a variety of sizes to allow a flexible rearrangement of layout for exhibitions, school-specific installations and future change of use. A variety of open-air spaces keeps a close relationship between the building and the surrounding nature, reflecting the Dean’s ideas of buildings not being isolated entities, but forms an environment, a precenct or a neighbourhood . Size Number of Subjects 53,790 5050 Tuition Fees Distance to YDNP 20 1943 4000 186.000 3897 Number of Students Number of Staff BUILDING 20MIT “THEMAGICAL INCUBATOR” Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts 0 100 200 George McCreery of McCreery & Theriault. Temporary structure ereected in the emergency of WW11, with a concrete slab ground floor and wood post and beam construction for the upper floors. Architect and Style Students and tutors at MIT’s building 20 would intermingle there was no hiercyr strucutre; instread there was a free for all learning experience, which fostered some of the greatest inventions of the 20th Century. Pedagogy and Politics Building 20 at MIT was constructed in 1943 in an effort to aid the invension of Radar technology nicknamed the Rad-Lab which helped win the Second World War. Its 15 acre of floor space spanning over 3 floors took just a year to errect because of standardised wood frame. This buiding was excempt from building regulations in the promeis to be torn down after the war however, it remained for over half a century.

Y E A P S The Yorkshire Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences University (YEAPS) is a new branch of MIT’s EAPS school, based in the geographical centre of the UK, aiming to utilise the diverse natural landscape of the Yorkshire Dales National Park, to create a secluded intellectual community. Using the Salk Institute as its main precedent, the university has several stakeholders that financially contribute to the studies that occur there, including the British Ecological Society, the Met Office and the UK Space Agency. Rather than having typical UK courses, YEAPS offers specific research questions within four main themes that students will be working towards solving. This means that the topics can change over time and are always looking to the future of geographical and environmental sciences. YEAPS will also bring in those from the local communities and ensure that the public are able to engage and learn from the research partaken at the university. Elise Billings-Evans, Roksana Wyrwa and Nick Kousolou

S T E aM The Dales Interdisciplinary University: a partnership between Leeds Arts University, Imperial College London, and Chrysalis Arts Development in Skipton. The resulting institution rejects the divergence of arts and science educational disciplines, and seeks to provide an environment where interdisciplinary research groups can combine their expertise and learn from one another, while their combined efforts are set towards creating solutions to today’s global challenges. Elena Oliinyk, Philippa Oakes and Indy Saligupta

Yorkshire Agricultural University The Yorkshire Agricultural University will present an opportunity for farmers in the Yorkshire Dales to pursue sustainable farming practices and diversify their businesses. With the N8 AgriFood as the client, the university will be equipped with innovative research and high-end facilities. Students, scholars, and farmers will stand on equal footing as they exchange knowledge and interact with each other. The three groups will be guided by the concept of live, learn, and labour. The university aims to break away from standard higher learning education by allowing students to choose their own curriculum and create their own path of study. Kelsie Cummins, Ryan Pohan and Ying Yu Ally Fung